The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard (–). L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only.

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Posted to India and swept into the British imperial advance of the s, he served in the Afghan, Suakin Sudanand Burma Myanmar campaigns.

Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. His next enterprise was under the imperial British East Africa Companyone of the chartered companies that preceded imperial annexation in Africa.

Full text of “The dual mandate in British tropical Africa”

Head of Zeus Ltd. Most of this vast region ofsquare milessquare km was still unoccupied and even unexplored by Europeans. Although controversial in Lagos, where it was opposed by a large section of the political class and the media, the amalgamation did not arouse passion in the rest of the country because the people were unaware of the implications. Lugard’s indirect rule became an instrument of British imperial administration in Africa.

The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard —the best known of the British colonial officers to serve in Africa.

His name is especially associated with Nigeriawhere he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — Funding of the colony of Nigeria in the development of state’s infrastructure such as harbours, railways and hospitals in Southern Nigeria came from revenue generated by taxes on imported alcohol.

Contact our editors with your feedback. In —06 he had seen no other way to control the vast population in northern Nigeria, whose rulers he had defeated, and he had subsequently been promoted governor-general —19 of a united Nigeria, which was by far the most important British colony in Africa. Governor of Hong Kong — As custodian of Africa’s resources, however, imperial Europe was committed to Africa’s development and the advancement and welfare of its people.


The African Lakes Company depot at Karonga was evacuated at the end of the year but in MayCaptain Lugard, persuaded by the British Consul at Mozambique, arrived to lead an expedition against Mlozi, sponsored by the African Lakes Company but without official British Government support.

Under this system, local administrative powers resided in the native authority made up of traditional rulers or chiefs with jurisdiction over a native treasury and native courts. Retrieved from ” https: Hong Kong University Press. Childbirth in England Under indirect rule, the emir’s allegiance shifted from the caliph to the colonial commissioner. Arounda group of Swahili traders under Mlozi bin Kazbadema established trading bases in the north-west sector of Lake Malawiincluding a stockade at Chilumba on the lake from where ivory and slaves could be shipped across the lake.

In Northern Nigeria, therefore, Lugard found the necessary centralized political structure and preexiting taxation and court systems critical for indirect rule to work.

He could not, however, resist the great opportunity offered mamdate him in mzndate unite the two parts of Nigeria into one vast state. In the place of missing authoritarian rulers, Lugard simply manufactured his own chiefs and equipped them with political authority to rule over a people unfamiliar to a system of kingship. For Lugard, it was also vital that Britain gain control of unclaimed areas before GermanyPortugal or France claimed the land and its resources for themselves.

Lugard pushed for native rule in African colonies. Thank You for Your Contribution! Please try again later. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. In —95 Lugard accepted another dangerous mission, this time for the Royal Niger Company manddate, to race the French in a treaty-making exploration on the Middle Niger.

Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard – Wikipedia

Only two serious local revolts marred the widespread acceptance and cooperation that Lugard obtained. Initial difficulty of European administration. Lugard writes in a clear style. But the bushwhacker from Africa achieved a surprising degree of success and, on his own initiativefounded the University madate Hong Kong.


En route, Lugard was instructed to enter into treaties with local tribes and build forts in order to secure safe passage for future IBEAC expeditions. Because each style has its own formatting mmandate that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or lugwrd, Encyclopedia. However, the proposal was neither well received nor acted upon. Following the Fulani jihad ofthe hitherto individualistic and competing Hausa states became united under a strong centralized theocratic state known as the Sokoto Caliphate.

Dual Mandate, Africa

During this period he served first on the Temporary Slavery Commission and was involved in organising the Slavery Convention.

Because she could not stand the Nigerian climate, Lugard felt obliged to leave Africa and to accept the governorship of Hong Kongwhich he held from to Colonial taxation was, for instance, in the eyes of the local taxpayer the chief’s initiative.

There were no children from the marriage. In Northern Nigeria, the revenue that allowed state development projects was less because the taxes was absent and thus funding of projects was covered from revenue generated in the south.

The limitations of indirect rule were demonstrated in Southern Nigeria where Lugard extended the system after the amalgamation of northern and southern protectorates in It was adopted by colonial officials in a number of British possessions such as Sierra Leonethe Gold Coastand Uganda.

In the southwest among mndate Yoruba, it encountered some problems and was less successful. The attempts of rulers to forcibly collect imposed colonial taxes bred discontentment in some mandxte of Yorubaland. The south and north showed wide contrasts in their original character and in their traditions of British rule. Retrieved 7 December You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, mancate your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Oxford University Press, It greatly influenced British administration in Africa and beyond.