BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.

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The next year he published Thoughts on Probability and a translation of Rousseau’s second discourse On the Origins of Inequality.

18th Century German Aesthetics

Herder’s first major work in aesthetics, Fragments on Recent German Literatureappeared inwhen he was only twenty-three. Leibniz also holds that the perfection that we perceive in other objects is in some sense communicated to ourselves, although he does not say that our pleasure in the perception of perfection is actually directed at the self-perfection that is thereby caused.

His brother, Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, was an influential Wolffian theologian. This is the side on which the faculty of approval touches demand or desire. They are doing so on the basis of a false hope conceived by that superb analyst Baumgarten.

The aim of aesthetics is the perfection of sensible cognition as such, that is, beauty, while its imperfection as such, that is, ugliness, is to be avoided. Some variant of this response to Plato was the core of aesthetics through much of subsequent philosophical history, and indeed continued to be central to aesthetics through much of the twentieth century. Lessing thereby misses what is essential to poetry altogether, namely that it communicates to us the real force of objects, including but not limited to actions, and thus most deeply engages our own force in response.

Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of Sean rated it it was amazing Dec 17, He returned to Berlin again inbut, disappointed in his hopes for the position of Royal Librarian, went to Hamburg in as director of the National Theater. In other words, although judgments of taste are made on the basis of clear but indistinct concepts, which is to say sensory perceptions and feelings rather than clear and distinct concepts, they nevertheless.

Greece enjoyed artists and philosophers in the same persons; and the wisdom of more than one Metrodorus directed art, and inspired its figures with more than common souls. Above all things, one is to be attentive to the particular, characteristic thoughts in works of art, which sometimes stand like expensive pearls in a string of inferior ones, and can get lost among them.


The fourth Grove is cast as a critique of Riedel’s Theory of the Fine Sciences and Artsas allexander noted, but also continues the debate with Lessing. In the Morning Lessons Mendelssohn does not emphasize that the free play of the mind has a pleasing effect on the body, but he does in his earlier writings, so let us now return to this third item in Mendelssohn’s catalogue of the axes of perfection aestheica aesthetic experience.

The Gymnasies, where, sheltered by public modesty, the youths exercised themselves naked, were the schools of art…. However, his criticism immediately triggered more philosophical aesthetics bauumgarten response.

It nevertheless remained a powerful force,…. We can consider the cognition of the soul in different respects; either in so far as aesthstica is true or false, which I call the material aspect in cognition; or in so far as arouses pleasure or displeasure, has as its consequence the approval or disapproval of the soul, and this can be called the formal aspect in cognition.

We would then take the name partly in its transcendental meaning, and partly in the psychological meaning. In Herder’s view, these distinctions are artificial and the characterization of Baumgarten’s method in particular is unfair. Yet Wolff’s conception of perfection was broad enough to include successful adaptation to an intended purpose, and thus in his analysis of our experience of architecture he emphasized our sense of the utility of structures as well as a sensory response to the kind of abstract form that could be considered an object of cognition.

It is this liveliness rather than probative clarity which alfxander the basis of aesthetic experience.

Thank you for your feedback. But this is only the first step of Herder’s argument. Want to Read saving…. But he also emphasized that aesthetic experience is an intrinsically enjoyable and therefore valuable experience of the unhindered activity of the mind. Valarie rated it really liked it Jun 18, This section will also include a discussion of the aesthetic theory of Marcus Herz, who was first a student of Kant and then a friend of Mendelssohn, but who developed an aesthetic theory that is in interesting ways independent of both.

In this regard even the fable must still be an imitation of nature with all its perfections. ArtLark Post author May 27, But rather than pursuing this, I want to make to make one further point about Mendelssohn’s general account of our enjoyment of the engagement of our powers of knowing and alezander.


A.G. Baumgarten, The Man Who ‘Invented’ Aesthetics | A R T L▼R K

Lessing thus touches upon the new idea that aesthetic response is based on the free play of our mental powers stimulated by an object, in his case always by a work of art, and he exploits several of Mendelssohn’s theoretical tools.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. A History of Philosophyvol. And art became, not the important thing it was intended to be, but the empty amusement of idle people. Herder is clear that there are no such rules, thus that aesthetics must confine itself to understanding the work of artists awsthetica our experience of their work without telling them how to do that work.


Winckelmann then makes the specific point that freedom from excessive clothing among the Greeks, particularly in their gymnastic and athletic exercises, gave their artists unparalleled opportunity to observe and to learn to represent the beauty of their bodies:. But his basic point remains: In the case of natural objects, this order is comprised by both the internal organization of an object to suit its overall goal and the part that the particular object plays in nature as a whole.

Now such representations are motions of the affects, hence to arouse affects is poetic. However, as he proceeds Wolff makes it clear that the intention of an architect is always to produce a structure that is both formally beautiful as well as useful and comfortable, so the perfection that subsists in the relation between intention and outcome in fact consists in the perfection of both form and utility in the building itself.

Mendelssohn followed his rabbi from Dessau to Berlin at the age of fourteen.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia

Sulzer’s mature aesthetics is firmly grounded in his generally Leibnizo-Wolffian metaphysics and psychology as well as in his Wolffian moral philosophy. But there is certainly a nascent view here that the perception of beauty in art, although not only in art, is both intrinsically pleasurable and also instrumentally valuable because it leads to self-improvement. Herder did, however, restate its most baumgarrten ideas in Sculpture: